What if “Planet 9” was hiding in observations from 40 years ago?

Have we finally found Planet 9? It’s way too early to tell. However, a candidate appears to have been found in data collected by the Iras satellite in 1983. Only recent observations will make it possible to confirm the reality of this object or not.

On January 25, 1983, theAstronomical infrared satellite (Iras) was created to carry out a complete inventory of the sources used in theInfrared at 12, 25, 60 and 100 µm. That space telescope will have operated until the liquid helium cooling its detectors was exhausted on November 21, 1983.

In the 1980s unexplained residues in theorbit from Neptune suggested the presence of a Tenth Planet (Pluto at that time still this status), the ” planet x “. Although they were much smaller than that Debris from the orbit of Uranus which resulted in Discovery of Neptunethey had motivated Clyde Tombaugh’s quest for a new planet, which led to the discovery of Pluto in 1930, although it soon became clear that this new body was too small to account for Neptune’s remains.

A first unsuccessful search in 1983

1983, while working on the preparation of theIRAS Point Source Catalogue, Michael Rowan Robinson undertook one systematic search for Planet X in the Iras data. At a meeting organized by the Royal Astronomical Society 1991 on ” The dynamics of solar system and Planet X “, I’astrophysicist Briton, now Professor Emeritus at theImperial College Londonhad then written a report on his research and found that there is no Planet X in the 70% of the sky that he was able to study.

A new measurement is then carried out Dimensions of Neptune eliminates the remains of Neptune’s orbit. The lack of deviation of the trajectories of the probes pioneer and Travel shows that no unknown massive planet exists in the solar system in the plane of the eclipticand the Wise data showed that no object the mass of Saturn Jupiter is in the solar system between 28,000 and 82,000 AU (0.44 and 1.30 light year) respectively.

A candidate to be confirmed

The discovery of Dozens of dwarf planets and small trans-Neptunian bodies Over the past thirty years, this has led to Pluto being reclassified as a dwarf planet as well as being reclassified Revival of the hypothesis of a still unknown distant planet. Rowan-Robinson therefore decided to do it Continue your search in the Iras data. By examining the unidentified sources in three Iras catalogues, he was able to identify some of them with galaxies, galactic sources or even cirrus (Astronomical thread structures visible in infrared).

only one candidate successfully passed the various tests. That candidate would be 225 ± 15 AU (about 7.5 times farther than Neptune) and would have a mass between 3 and 5 Earth masses. It’s up to one Broad very high on the ecliptic and at low galactic latitude, which may explain why it was not found in previous searches. Dynamic simulations are needed to determine if this candidate is consistent with existing planetary ephemeris and if it can explain them Grouping of orbits of extreme transneptunian objects. If so, a search of a 2.5 to 4 degree radius ring centered on the 1983 position would be of interest at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

Whether this candidate is real or notIras will certainly have allowed for forced attendanceremoved massive objects. In fact, the telescope had the capacity to detect a planet with 10 terrestrial masses at 380-600 AU and with 20 terrestrial masses at 690-1000 AU (the upper limit corresponds to a the atmosphere extended planet). Compare, Uranus and Neptune have masses of 15 and 17 Earth masses respectively.

New evidence points to the existence of a ninth planet in the solar system

Article by Nathalie Mayer, published October 4, 2021

planet nine She is being hunted from all sides. However, it has never been observed before. So does it really exist? Two research teams are now taking a new look at it. Who might finally flush it out…

In recent years, the rumor has swelled. A ninth planet would be hiding at the edge of our solar system. What put the chip in your ear astronomers? The particular orbits of several objects of the Kuiper belt . All assumptions are there. Even those who claim so ninth planet would be a exoplanetcaptured by our solar system. Or… a little black hole !

For their part, simulations of the evolution of our solar system are struggling to explain the configuration of this tiny corneruniverse . Arguing because they lack information researcher from the University of British Columbia (Canada) and the University of Arizona (USA). So they suggest that a planet the size of ours Earth or Mars could have been born under gas giantsbefore being pushed far beyond Neptune’s orbit.

Because according to astronomers, there is something strange about the current configuration of our solar system. They argue that the outer part of our system probably doesn’t consist of four giant planet then nothing but dwarf planets . Their simulations show that there should indeed be planets of other sizes. And adding a rocky planetbetween the giants gives a more accurate model. At least as far as the early stages of the development of our solar system are concerned. Then it could join the dwarf planets. Or even literally ejected into interstellar space.

A planet betrayed by trans-Neptunian objects

As researchers hope to learn more from next-generation telescopes that will soon scan the sky with unprecedented sharpness, Astronomers from the University of Oklahoma(United States) also models thedevelopment of our solar system . Of his four giant planet. And the millions of icy objects that populate the Kuiper belt disc. All over no less than 4 billion years!

Models with a ninth planet show that distant objects – those that never come closer than 40 to 50 times the distance between Earth and ours Sun– tend to cluster in orbits that have a relatively low inclination to the plane of the solar system. A feature that seems to indicate the presence of a ninth planet. Because it doesn’t appear on the eight-planet models.

So if we don’t get our hands on that ninth planet everyone’s talking about, observing this cluster of distant objects may well provide new indirect evidence of its existence. Here, too, we have to wait for the commissioning of new instruments. that Legacy Survey space and time (OHSA) from the Vera C. Rubin Observatory, for example. It will begin observing the sky in 2023 and will be able to spot the trans-Neptunian objects that astronomers are so desperately looking for.

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