immigration, show duel between Macron and Le Pen

► Emmanuel Macron: extension of the five-year term without major innovation

Emmanuel Macron’s program, where immigration is not a priority, focuses mainly on projects already started in the first five-year term.

Emmanuel Macron’s immigration proposals are concise, commensurate with his entire 22-page program. While this topic has covered a large part of his current mandate, it is primarily about extending projects already launched during his first five-year term.

“I was struck by the fact that there are few concrete proposals, which is surprising comments Matthieu Tardis, researcher at the French Institute of International Relations. And it says nothing about accepting Ukrainian refugees, which, however, will force us to completely review our software “ due to much more favorable reception conditions than for other refugees.

→ LIVE. 2022 presidential election results, abstentions, analyzes … Follow the second round

“I also thought that when it comes to immigration, it will be much more in the continuity of the French Presidency of the Council of the European Union. » The European prism only shines through in desire:“We are going to the end of the Schengen reform”.

At the national level, it indicates that it wants to create “Strength of boundaries” protect internal borders without saying anything else. The national border control system, re-established in a state of emergency since 2015 and never stopped, has already doubled its staff from 2,400 to 4,800 in order to stem arrivals from Italy and Spain.

In fact, the outgoing president’s program, without questioning the rights of foreigners, rather sets the course for slightly more restrictive measures, in an extension of the 2018 asylum and immigration law. It’s about deportation “Foreigners disturbing public order”. But from October 2020, the administration is alreadymore than 30,000 residence permits have been refused or withdrawn for foreigners involved in acts of violence or drug trafficking.

Eviction, easier said than done

Emmanuel Macron also intends to: “Reduce the time it takes to process asylum applications to decide more quickly who is eligible and to deport those who are not eligible”a will, which already appeared in the 2018 law. During a press conference on March 17, the presidential candidate lamented too many “Remedies”, wish procedures faster and more efficiently. Thereby, “A denial of asylum will be worth the commitment to leave France (OQTF)”.

SUITCASE. Macron-Le Pen, compare their programs

“The Prefecture may already issue an OQTF after notification of rejection, if the person has not submitted another application for residence, Matthieu Tardis reacts. France supplies a lot of them, but this does not guarantee the effectiveness of the removal. »

From 2017, Emmanuel Macron increased the capacity of detention centers by 30% and extended the duration of detention. But the result is too weak. Forced removals have certainly increased from 12,961 in 2016 to 18,906 in 2019 (before falling again since Covid), far from over 100,000 annual OQTFs. Because “In order to be able to deport, you must obtain consular passes from countries of origin that are not interested in it”, recalls Matthieu Tardis. And the government’s efforts to make the granting of laissez-passer conditional on visas for hostile countries have not brought any spectacular results.

“Emmanuel Macron was able to communicate his integration policy, which is interesting”, continues Matthieu Tardis, director who greatly increased the French language courses for foreigners. But we must believe that the electoral context is not conducive to this. Therefore, it prefers to indicate that it wants to condition access to residence permits for a period longer than four years “for the French language exam and the real work integration process”. Currently, almost 75% of foreigners attending French language courses already confirm the A1 level.

► Marine Le Pen: referendum on clarifying the rights of foreigners

Marine Le Pen intends to limit all rights of foreigners, which would require a constitutional amendment, which he wants to adopt in a referendum.

No wonder immigration tops Marine Le Pen’s “22 resources for France” list. Rarely, however, is his program, which aims to save € 16 billion a year in expenses for foreigners, that is so detailed and extreme. Because if Marine Le Pen is more civilized than Éric Zemmour in form, she really is at the bottom, as she says, “Review of the entirety of the law applicable to foreigners”.

→ ANALYSIS. Immigration, candidate programs under the microscope

To that end, it first claims to shut down many channels of legal immigration, ranging from family reunification to that “Prohibited or restricted under strict criteria”. These measures “Allows a foreigner who has a residence permit in France to bring his spouse and children with him, explains Matthieu Tardis, researcher at the French Institute of International Relations, but it is already heavily supervised which explains why it only gives around 15,000 residence permits per year. ‘

Limitation of the rights of foreigners in the legal situation

The candidate of the Supervisory Board also intends to impose that asylum applications are submitted only from abroad. “You can imagine that it will be difficult for people persecuted in their country to seek asylum there, Matthieu Tardis reacts, which threatens to trigger an air call to the French consulates of neighboring countries. »

Its program also envisages limiting the rights of foreigners who are legally in France. So there it is“To ensure a national priority of access to social housing and employment”. Non-contribution-based social benefits, such as family benefits, APL or RSA, would only be available to foreigners after working for at least five years.

→ ANALYSIS. A difficult search for leftist voters for Marine Le Pen

Finally, Marine Le Pen wants to “remove the residence permit for any foreigner who has not worked in France for one year”. He also wants to ban the veil in public places. As for the acquisition of citizenship, it will depend on: “Criteria of merit and assimilation”. Thus, the jus salt, which allows a person born in France to acquire citizenship, will be abolished.

Risky revision of the constitution

The third stage of the rocket is to make it easier to throw, not really saying how to do something better than Emmanuel Macron, except to raise “artificial” and “Offensive appeals”. Legalization of an undocumented foreigners “it will not be possible, except in exceptional cases” and illegal stay will become a criminal offense again, leading to the possibility of a conviction “Persons providing direct or indirect assistance to foreigners trying to enter or stay illegally”.

In short, Matthieu Tardis concludes, “The aim is both to hinder access to a residence permit and to weaken the situation of people in a normal situation who may lose their residence permit in the event of unemployment. However, most will remain in an area where employment and housing conditions are degraded, making their integration difficult. ‘

CRITICAL. Hervé Le Bras “There Is No Big Replacement”: theory versus numbers

Marine Le Pen knows that her program challenges fundamental rights as defined in both the European Convention on Human Rights and the jurisprudence of the Council of State, the Constitutional Council and the Court of Justice of the European Union. Therefore, it intends to modify the Constitution in order to create a “constitutional shield” giving primacy to national law over international law. Audit authorized according to the candidate of the Supervisory Board pursuant to Art. 11, which plans to pass the referendum.

Except that “Article 11 precisely defines the areas which allow referenda to be held, and in no case does this include the revision of the Constitution, slice Serge Slam, professor of public law at Grenoble-Alpes University. Moreover, the draft referendum itself should be in line with the Constitution, which it is not. ‘

→ FIND the results of the 1st round of the presidential elections in 2022, commune by communes, and the 2nd round from Sunday, April 24 at

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